• 大江大河会议专刊:松辽流域生态流量赤字及其成因
  • Ecological Flow Requirement Deficit in the Songliao River Basin and its Key Drivers
  • 基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41977082、41561134016)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 吴昌贤
  • 北京大学 城市与环境学院
  • 薄岩
  • 北京大学 城市与环境学院
  • 杜悦悦
  • 北京大学 城市与环境学院
  • 周丰
  • 北京大学 城市与环境学院
  • 摘要:水资源的过度开发导致了水短缺和水生态退化,因此,提供适宜的生态流量对维护河流健康具有重要意义。以往研究聚焦断面尺度的生态流量及其保障程度,尚未有效剥离上游子流域的影响。本研究以松辽流域为研究对象,运用VMF法、Tessmann_adapted法和Smakhtin_adapted法3种水文学法核算二级水资源区生态流量及1956~2000年期间生态流量赤字,解析生态流量赤字的关键成因。结果表明:松花江和辽河流域的生态流量分别为1869±402 m3/s和554±81 m3/s,均占天然流量的44%。其中松花江(三岔口以下)流域生态流量最大,东辽河流域生态流量最小。1956-2000年间,松辽流域均出现生态流量赤字且逐年增加,辽河干流赤字情况最严重。1976-1980年间,气候变化是造成生态流量赤字的主导因素,其他时期人类耗水是主导因素且贡献逐年增加。该研究对松辽流域生态流量确定和保障、水资源合理开发利用、水生态保护等具有重要现实意义。
  • Abstract:Overexploitation of limited freshwater resources has led to water scarcity, economic downturn and ecological destruction. Providing suitable ecological flow requirement (EFR) is of great significance to maintaining river health and supporting the development of human society. Existing studies usually only focus on the EFR of gauging stations and have not accounted for the EFR deficit and its causes. Here, three hydrological methods are chosen to analyze the EFRs of Songliao River Basin, including Tessmann_adapted method, Smakhtin_adapted method and VMF method. EFR deficit and its key drivers of Songliao River Basin were further assessed over the period 1956-2000. The results show that the EFRs of Songhua River Basin and Liao River Basin are 1869±402 m3/s and 554±81 m3/s, both accounting for 44% of the natural flow. Songhua River (below Sanchakou) has the largest EFR, and Dongliao River has the smallest EFR. EFR deficit of Songliao River Basin showed increase trend for 1956-2000 and the EFR deficit of Liao River"s mainstream is the most serious. During the period from 1976 to 1980, climate change was the main factor causing the EFR deficit. In other periods, human water consumption was the main factor and its contribution increased year by year. The results are of vital importance for the utilization of water resources, environment protection, industrial and agricultural development.

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