研究报告

  • 周侃,张健,樊杰,徐勇.青藏高原农牧区生活垃圾治理水平的地域分异与影响因素研究—以青海省4315个行政村为例[J].环境科学学报,2022,42(11):482-492

  • 青藏高原农牧区生活垃圾治理水平的地域分异与影响因素研究—以青海省4315个行政村为例
  • Spatial variation and determinants of domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of 4315 villages in Qinghai Province
  • 基金项目:第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(No.2019QZKK0406);国家自然科学基金(No.41971164)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 周侃
  • 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 张健
  • 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 樊杰
  • 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 徐勇
  • 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 摘要:生活垃圾治理是青藏高原农牧区人居环境的突出短板,厘清农牧区生活垃圾治理水平地域分异与影响因素,可为农牧区人居环境综合整治、青藏高原生态环境风险防范提供科学依据.以青海省4315个行政村为例,多尺度解析农牧区生活垃圾集中治理覆盖率和服务人口 比重,基于逻辑斯蒂回归模型的总体效应和分区效应估计,定量刻画农牧区生活垃圾治理水平影响因素.结果显示:①青海省农牧区生活垃圾集中治理覆盖率低于全国及西部平均水平,呈现由青东河湟谷地农区向柴达木及环湖牧区和青南高原高寒牧区梯度递减;②农牧区生活垃圾治理水平受海拔高程、地形地貌、垃圾转运距离等集中治理成本因素的多重影响,高海拔、山区地貌及远距离转运是农牧区生活垃圾集中治理失效的重要原因;③少数民族聚居、常住人口规模偏低、村域经济相对滞后的牧区仍是生活垃圾治理弱势区域,而脱贫政策支持和管理者受教育水平提升,亦会对改善生活垃圾治理水平带来积极影响.建议结合集中治理成本和常住人口分布及产污特性,因地制宜实施“村收集-镇转运-县处理”城乡一体化治理(模式I)、“村收集-镇处理”乡镇集中治理(模式II)及“村收集-村处理”牧区分散治理(模式III)3类模式,采取政府购买服务和设立公益岗位等方式带动政府、农牧民、企业多方主体参与生活垃圾治理,综合提升农牧区生活垃圾治理能力及人居环境品质.
  • Abstract:Domestic waste treatment is one of the most prominent weaknesses of the living environment in agro-pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Clarifying the spatial variation and determinants of the level of domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas provides the scientific foundation for comprehensively remediating the living environment in agro-pastoral areas and averting eco-environment risks in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Taking 4315 administrative villages in Qinghai Province as an example, this paper analyzed the coverage rates of centralized domestic waste treatment and the proportion of population served in agro-pastoral areas at multiple scales. In addition, the determinants of the level of domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas were quantified by using the logistic regression model for estimating the overall and zonal effects. The results show that: ①The coverage rate of centralized domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas of Qinghai Province was inferior to the national and western region averages, showing a gradient descending pattern from Hehuang Valley agricultural area in eastern Qinghai to the Qaidam Basin and pastoral areas around Qinghai Lake and then to the highland alpine pastoralism in southern Qinghai; ②Multiple factors such as altitude, topography and transfer distance were strongly related to the level of domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas. High altitude, mountainous terrain, and long-distance transfer were significant contributory factors to the deficiency of centralized domestic waste treatment in agro-pastoral areas; ③Multi-ethnic-populated pastoral areas with comparatively lagging economies and low resident populations were still vulnerable in terms of domestic waste treatment. Furthermore, the support of poverty alleviation policies and the increase in education level of managers had a positive impact on improving the level of domestic waste treatment. The main policy implications are as follows: Three models of treatment are applicable in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which include a model of urban-rural integration treatment (domestic waste is originally collected in the village and then transferred to the town before it is finally disposed of in the county, model I), centralized treatment in the town (domestic waste is also originally collected in the village but disposed of in the town, model II), and decentralized treatment in pastoral areas (domestic waste is collected and disposed of directly in the village, model III) under the conditions of the cost of centralized treatment, the distribution of resident population and the characteristics of pollutants. Additionally, it is wise for the government to adopt methods such as purchasing services and establishing public service positions to motivate the government, agro-pastoralists, and enterprises to jointly participate in domestic waste treatment, so that comprehensively advance the level of domestic waste treatment and optimize the quality of the living environment in agro-pastoral areas.

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