研究报告

  • 崔庚,刘言,佟守正,吕宪国,王红,徐素娟,王珊,李相林.提升水库下游河流水质的生态放流量确定和可行性分析[J].环境科学学报,2022,42(11):184-192

  • 提升水库下游河流水质的生态放流量确定和可行性分析
  • Reservoir ecological release accounting and feasibility analysis for improving water quality of downstream rivers
  • 基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No.2019YFC0409103);吉林省生态环境厅2020年环境保护科研项目(No.吉环科字第2020-03号);吉林省科技发展计划资助项目(No.20200403013SF)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 崔庚
  • 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130102
  • 刘言
  • 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130102;长春师范大学地理科学学院,长春130032
  • 佟守正
  • 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130102
  • 吕宪国
  • 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130102
  • 王红
  • 吉林省中实检验检测有限公司,长春130102
  • 徐素娟
  • 吉林省中实检验检测有限公司,长春130102
  • 王珊
  • 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130102;长春师范大学地理科学学院,长春130032
  • 李相林
  • 东北师范大学环境学院,长春130117
  • 摘要:大型水利枢纽工程在防洪、发电、供水、航运等诸多方面发挥巨大作用的同时,也改变了河流的天然水文情势,导致下游河流流量减少,削弱了河流水体的自净能力,威胁河流生态系统功能和物种多样性.在此背景下,选定松辽流域石头口门水库及其下游饮马河为研究对象, 首先分析了饮马河主要污染组分COD和NH3-N浓度的变化趋势以及前期石头口门水库的生态放流措施对下游河流水环境质量的改善效果,然后基于河流水动力和水质模型,通过目标水质反推水库的生态放流量,从而拟定了一套进一步提升河流水环境质量的水库生态放流方案.最后基于水库均衡分析论证了方案的可行性.研究结果表明,原有的水库生态放流计划实施后,劣V类水体同比减少54.55%,效果较为明显.为了满足“十四五”水质目标,进一步提升河流水质,除10月和12月以外,其它月份的生态放流量均需要提高,年生态补水量增加1425万m3,能够满足水库的供水、灌溉需求和蓄水计划,方案具有可行性,能够有效缓解河流水体污染,提升水质.
  • Abstract:Large hydraulic projects play an important role in flood control, power generation, water supply, shipping, etc. While they change the natural hydrological regime of rivers and reduce the downstream flow, which greatly weakens the self-purification ability of river flow and poses a critical threat to the ecosystem functions and biological diversity of rivers. In this context, Shitoukoumen Reservoir and its downstream in the Yinma river basin was selected as the study area in this paper. In this study, the characteristics of COD and NH3-N and their changing trends in the Yinma River were first identified and how the present ecological discharge scheme of Shitoukoumen Reservoir improved the water environment quality of the downstream of Yinma river was investigated. Then, the ecological discharge of the reservoir was back-deduced under different water quality goals with the application of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. According to the simulations, a set of ecological discharge scheme of Shitoukoumen Reservoir was made to further improve the water environment quality of Yinma River and the feasibility of the scheme was demonstrated based on the water budget analysis of the reservoir. The results showed that volume of inferior V water reduced by 54.55% due to the implementation of the present ecological discharge scheme of Shitoukoumen reservoir. In order to achieve the water quality goal of the "14th Five-Year Plan" and further improve the water quality of Yinma river, more discharge should be released for ecological water supplement throughout a year except for October and December. Annual ecological discharge released from Shitoukoumen Reservoir will increase by 14.25 million m3. The proposed scheme can meet both the irrigation and water supply needs, and the impoundment plans of the reservoir. It can effectively alleviate the water pollution problems in the Yinma river and will greatly improve the water quality.

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