研究报告

  • 张淳,郑利兵,张良长,艾为党,郁达伟,隋倩雯,魏源送,徐东耀.AnMBR处理密闭生保系统中灰水的效能与微生物群落演替研究[J].环境科学学报,2022,42(11):94-105

  • AnMBR处理密闭生保系统中灰水的效能与微生物群落演替研究
  • Treatment efficiency and microbial community succession of AnMBR in treating grey wastewater from controlled ecological life support system
  • 基金项目:人因工程国家重点实验室2019预研基金资助项目(No.6142222190715)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 张淳
  • 中国矿业大学,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,水污染控制实验室,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100085
  • 郑利兵
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,水污染控制实验室,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100085
  • 张良长
  • 中国航天员科研训练中心,人因工程国防科技重点实验室,北京 100094
  • 艾为党
  • 中国航天员科研训练中心,人因工程国防科技重点实验室,北京 100094
  • 郁达伟
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,水污染控制实验室,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100085
  • 隋倩雯
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,水污染控制实验室,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100085
  • 魏源送
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,水污染控制实验室,北京 100085;中国科学院生态环境研究中心,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100085
  • 徐东耀
  • 中国矿业大学,北京 100085
  • 摘要:灰水的处理与回用是保障受控生态生命保障系统(CELSS)中水循环的关键,研究中采用厌氧膜生物反应器(AnMBR)处理尿液源分离后的CELSS灰水,考察了废水处理效能及微生物群落演替特征.结果发现,废水中溶解性有机物(DOM)主要为类色氨酸、表面活性剂类和类腐殖质,COD去除率可达65%~75%,阴离子表面活性剂去除率高达80%以上,有效解决了表面活性剂积累问题,但高温和低水力停留时间(HRT)条件会降低处理效能.高通量测序研究表明,表面活性剂降解相关菌群是保障污泥降解性能的关键,SynergistesCitrobacter为关键降解细菌; 但高温和低HRT条件会抑制降解,导致表面活性剂积累和有机物去除率下降.表面活性剂的累积会引起反应器中微生物群落演替,关键菌群由接种污泥中的MethanosarcinaSyntrophomonasKeratinibaculum等嗜热产甲烷类菌属逐步演替为Proteiniclasticum、Pseudomonas、AminobacteriumCitrobacterDesulfovibrio等菌属,产甲烷菌特别是Methanosarcina受到显著抑制;硫酸盐还原菌代谢和产酸过程增强,导致碱度消耗增加.因此,污泥中固着性胞外聚合物(B-EPS)、混合液悬浮固体(MLSS)浓度和粒径在处理过程中降低,而溶解性胞外聚合物(S-EPS)和反应器中的溶解性蛋白显著增加,污泥产率较低,适合于受限空间的应用.整体而言,AnMBR可有效应用于CELSS生活废水的处理,为未来 深空探测研究提供支撑,但需要进一步关注污泥流失与表面活性剂积累问题,强化反应器稳定运行.
  • Abstract:The treatment and reuse of greywater is the key to guarantee the efficient water cycle in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). In this study, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was applied to treat greywater after urine was source separated in CELSS, the treatment efficiency and microbial community succession were investigated. It was found that the main dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the greywater is tryptophan, surfactants, and fulvic acid, and the COD removal rate was 65%~75% with a high surfactants removal efficiency of 80%. The issue of surfactants accumulation in AnMBR can be significantly solved, but the high temperature and low HRT would restrain the degradation of surfactants, and the COD removal efficiency was decreased accordingly. The high-throughput sequencing study reveals that the microbial related to surfactants degradation was the key, and SynergistesCitrobacter were recognized as the key genus. But the high temperature and low HRT would restrain the degradation activity of microbes,, which would in turn influence the microbial community in AnMBR. The key genus turned from MethanosarcinaSyntrophomonasKeratinibaculum, which were mainly related to methane metabolism, to ProteiniclasticumPseudomonasAminobacteriumCitrobacter, Desulfovibrio. Methanogens, especially for Methanosarcina, were significantly inhibited. Sulfate reduction bacteria and the acidogenic bacteria were enhanced, lead to the increase consumption of alkalinity. As a result, the EPS, MLSS, and particle size of sludge were decreased, the sludge production was significantly low, which benefit the application in space-limited condition. In conclusion, AnMBR is a potential substitute for greywater treatment in CELSS, which could promote the improvement of deep-space exploration. However, the loss of sludge and the accumulation of surfactants need further investigation to ensure the stability of removal efficiency.

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