Abstract：In order to evaluate the influence of waste residue leaching solution of waste residue after adding organic acid secreted by pioneer plant roots on surrounding environmental organisms in the process of ecological restoration of waste residue yard in polymetallic mines. In this paper， zebrafish （Danio rerio） was used as the subject. The organic acids （oxalic acid and tartaric acid） secreted by the roots of a typical pioneer plant （ryegrass） were used to treat the waste residue of native zinc smelting in Weining， Guizhou Province. And the effects of different treatments on the antioxidant system， nervous system， and histology of zebrafish were reflected by taking the different responses of the leachate to the tested biological antioxidant enzymes and acetylcholinesterase （AchE） as the evaluation index. The results showed that the participation of two kinds of organic acids can reduce the pH of the leaching solution of zinc smelting slag in different degrees， and more heavy metals can be released from the waste slag. Fourteen days after exposure to the waste residue leaching solution with the participation of organic acids， the antioxidant enzymes in the tested biological tissues were significantly affected， and the accumulation of propanediol （MDA） in the tissues was finally caused by the inability to overcome long-term oxidative stress. The leaching solution of waste residue with the participation of organic acid had obvious neurotoxicity to zebrafish. After long-term exposure， the tested organisms showed slow swimming， slow breathing， and decreased operculum opening frequency. There were edema， proliferation， or exfoliation of epithelial cells， hyperemia of gill filaments， and twisted or broken gill fragments in gill tissue， while more muscle fiber nuclei enlarged， pyknotic and fragmented in muscle tissue. Anyway， the heavy metals in the waste residue can be released and cause damage to the environmental biological antioxidant system and nervous system， through the selection of pioneer plants with strong adaptability， strong tolerance， a developed root system， and a large amount of organic acid secretion to repair the polymetallic waste site.While focusing on the rapid greening effect brought by some pioneer phytoremediation with high adaptability and high tolerance， attention should also be paid to the possible environmental and ecological risks caused by organic acids secreted by their roots.