Abstract：It is well known that soil microbial communities have a good response to the remediation effect of soils contaminated with heavy metals. To evaluate the effect of different washing agents on the structure of soil microbial community， a simulation washing test was performed with a heavily cadmium （Cd）-polluted agricultural soils collected around mining area. The effects of two commonly used washing agents， ethylene-diaminetetra-methylene phosphoric acid （EDTMP） and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid （EDTA）， on the structure of microbial communities， chemical forms of Cd and some physicochemical properties of the test soils were compared. The results showed that both agents had low to moderate efficiencies after single washing， with 14.23% and 38.93% Cd removal being obtained for EDTMP and EDTA， respectively. Substantial changes in the dominant bacterial phyla after soil washing were observed. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the EDTMP-washed soil increased significantly， whereas Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae decreased. In contrast， the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased significantly in the EDTA-washed soil. In the soil washed with EDTMP， Proteobacteria， Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes were considerably higher， and Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae were significantly lower than in those washed with EDTA （p < 0.05）. Redundancy analysis （RDA） indicated that these two washing agents influenced the structure of microbial community by reducing the concentration of Cd， altering soil pH and main soil nutrient contents.