研究报告

  • 门志远,刘硕,李昀东,宣立强,蔡璐瑶.哈尔滨新区不同下垫面悬浮大气微塑料污染特征及潜在生态风险评估[J].环境科学学报,2022,42(6):329-336

  • 哈尔滨新区不同下垫面悬浮大气微塑料污染特征及潜在生态风险评估
  • Pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of microplastics suspended in different underlying surfaces in Harbin New Area
  • 基金项目:国家自然科学基金(No.41501033);黑龙江省科学基金项目(No.LC2017018);哈尔滨师范大学学术创新重点项目(No.HSDSSCX2020-02)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 门志远
  • 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 刘硕
  • 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 李昀东
  • 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 宣立强
  • 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 蔡璐瑶
  • 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 摘要:悬浮大气微塑料(Suspended atmospheric microplastics,SAMPs)已被确定为水、土壤等环境单元的重要污染来源之一,并构成一定的潜在生态风险.为了解SAMPs在不同环境中的差异,本研究以哈尔滨新区为研究区,使用便携式大气颗粒物采样器(Airmetrics,USA)对该区域6种不同下垫面的空气进行采集,经过立体显微镜观察和傅里叶红外光谱仪(VERTEX 80)分析后,证实SAMPs广泛存在并得出关于SAMPs丰度分布、类型、粒径、颜色和化学组成成分的数据信息.结果显示,碎片状SAMPs是耕地的优势类型,其他下垫面的优势类型为纤维状SAMPs; 不同下垫面SAMPs的粒径组成结构相似,尺寸为1~35 μm的SAMPs占总数的80.71%,其中,林地、草地和水域的小粒径SAMPs占比大于其他下垫面,并且未发现粒径大于100 μm的SAMPs;透明微塑料是各下垫面SAMPs的主要颜色类型,其中,建设用地和水域SAMPs中彩色微塑料偏多,这与人类活动有直接关系;各下垫面SAMPs的聚合物组成包括聚乙烯(PE)、聚丙烯(PP)、聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)、聚苯乙烯(PS)、聚氯乙烯(PVC),其中,耕地和水域的PE定量百分比较大;通过生态风险评估模型初步计算,各下垫面生态风险较低,且发现人类集聚程度与风险指数成正比关系.SAMPs与人类生活紧密相关,本文为进一步了解城市SAMPs的空间分布、运输和风险提供了科学依据.
  • Abstract:Suspended atmospheric microplastics (SAMPs) have been identified as one of the important sources of pollution in environmental units such as water and soil, and they pose some potential ecological risks. To understand the differences of SAMPs in different environments, this study used Harbin New area as the study area and collected air from six different underlying surfaces in the region using a portable atmospheric particulate sampler (Airmetrics, USA). After stereomicroscopic observation and Fourier infrared spectrometer (VERTEX 80) analysis, the widespread presence of SAMPs was confirmed and data information on the abundance distribution, type, particle size, color and chemical composition of SAMPs was derived. The analysis indicated the following results. Fragmented SAMPs were the dominant type in cultivated land, and the dominant type in other substrates was fibrous. The particle size composition structure of SAMPs was similar in different underlying surfaces, and SAMPs with size range from 1 to 35 μm accounted for 80.71% of the total, among which the percentage of small size SAMPs in woodland, grassland and water area was larger than other underlying surfaces, and no SAMPs with particle size larger than 100 μm were found. Transparent microplastics were the main color type of SAMPs in each subsurface, among which colored microplastics were more in construction land and water SAMPs, which were directly related to human activities. The polymer composition of SAMPs of each subsurface included PP, PET, PE, PS, and PVC, among which the quantitative percentage of PE was larger in cultivated land and water. Preliminary calculations by the ecological risk assessment model showed that the ecological risk of each subsurface was low, and the degree of human concentration was found to be positively related to the risk index. SAMPs are closely related to human life, and this paper provides a scientific basis for further understanding the spatial distribution, transport and risk of urban SAMPs.

  • 摘要点击次数: 57 全文下载次数: 72