特别选题:环境空间管控研究

  • 周侃,陈妤凡,徐勇,伍健雄.重点生态功能区环境污染源排放特征与空间管控模式——以藏东南为例[J].环境科学学报,2021,41(10):3871-3881

  • 重点生态功能区环境污染源排放特征与空间管控模式——以藏东南为例
  • Emission characteristics and spatial control modes of environmental pollution sources in key ecological function zones: A case study of Southeast Tibet, China
  • 基金项目:第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(No.2019QZKK0406);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41971164);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(No.XDA23020101)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 周侃
  • 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
  • 陈妤凡
  • 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
  • 徐勇
  • 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
  • 伍健雄
  • 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
  • 摘要:重点生态功能区以保持并提高生态产品供给能力为主体功能定位,区内自然环境敏感性和脆弱性突出,研究其人类活动过程中的环境污染源排放特征与空间管控模式,对科学协调保护与利用、切实加强重点生态功能区环境保护和治理水平具有重要意义.以青藏高原重要生态安全屏障区藏东南为例,基于环境污染源的固体废弃物、水体污染物和大气污染物排放强度的分类估算与空间特征解析,探讨面向污染源排放强度和多尺度管控精度的分级空间管控方案.研究结果表明:藏东南环境污染源的排放强度整体较低,雅鲁藏布江和雅尼河谷地因人类生产生活活动密度较大,其污染物排放量显著高于其他区域;在重点生态功能区应建立由7个二级类和21个三级类构成的环境污染源空间管控体系,重点管控以城镇居住区和工矿业生产空间为主的"点状"胁迫、以交通运输场所和人文游憩空间为主的"线状"胁迫、以农业种植区和畜禽养殖区为主的"面状"胁迫;针对藏东南各类环境污染源的空间耦合及交互特征,提出城乡生活集聚型、农牧业生产集聚型和休闲旅游集聚型3种典型区,依次制定"分级处理+资源利用"、"源头减排+就地消纳"、"实时动态监控+绿色设施营造+游憩利用规范"的差异化空间管控模式.
  • Abstract:The main function of Key Ecological Function Zone (KEFZ) is to maintain and increase the supply capacity of ecological products, whereas the sensitivity and vulnerability of the KEFZ's environment tend to be prominent. In this regard, it is of great significance to study the emission characteristics and spatial control mode of environmental pollution sources caused by human activities, especially for scientific and coordinated protection and utilization, and strengthening the environmental protection and governance level of key ecological function zones. Taking southeast Tibet as an example, which is an important ecological barrier in Tibet, this paper proposed the hierarchical spatial control measures in terms of the pollutant emission intensity and multi-scale control accuracy, which was based on the emission assessment and spatial analysis by sources, including solid waste, water pollutants and air pollutants. The results showed that:① the pollutant emission intensity in Southeast Tibet was relatively low, while the indicator of Yarlung Zangbo Valley and Yani Valley was obviously higher because of intensive human production and living activities. ② A spatial control system of environmental pollution sources was proposed, which is composed of 7 subclasses and 21 tertiary classes measures, focusing on controlling the "point" sources mainly located in industrial, mining and urban areas, "line" sources including transport and recreation facilities, and "area" sources consisting of agricultural and animal husbandry land. ③ According to the spatial coupling and interaction characteristics of the main environmental pollution sources in Southeast Tibet, three typical agglomeration areas were recognized, namely, urban and rural, agricultural and animal husbandry, and tourism areas. Correspondingly, three different control modes, hierarchical treatment and resource utilization, source emission reduction and local treatment, and real-time dynamic monitoring, green facilities construction and recreation utilization specification, were suggested.

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