• 任玉芬,方文颖,欧阳志云,王效科.基于面板数据的我国城市水资源水环境随机前沿面分析[J].环境科学学报,2020,40(7):2638-2643

  • 基于面板数据的我国城市水资源水环境随机前沿面分析
  • Stochastic frontiers analysis of urban water resources and water environment in China based on panel data
  • 基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(No.71533005);国家重点研发计划项目(No.2016YFC0503004,2017YFF0207303)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 任玉芬
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 方文颖
  • 北京市南水北调大宁管理处, 北京 102442
  • 欧阳志云
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 王效科
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 摘要:科学客观的评价城市水资源利用差异、明晰造成差异的原因可以为决策部门制定适宜的用水供水政策提供科学依据.收集了全国283个城市15年的市辖区城市建设用地面积、市辖区年末总人口、市辖区供水总量、市辖区年末实有城市道路面积、市辖区地区生产总值、污水排放总量.采用基于面板数据的随机前沿面模型计算主要城市的水资源利用效率和水环境压力,结果显示我国主要地级城市水资源利用效率普遍不高,平均值为0.464,低于平均值的城市有167个,占评估城市的59.01%.城市水环境压力具有普遍性,平均水环境压力为0.347,高于平均值的城市有106个,占评估城市的37.46%.发挥区域地理优势,加强区域间技术合作,因地制宜的开展诸如调整产业结构,引进先进生产技术和设备等相关提高水资源利用效率、减小水环境压力的举措,是实现水资源利用和城市可持续发展的重要途径.
  • Abstract:Scientifically and objectively evaluating the differences in urban water resource utilization and finding clear reasons for the differences can provide a scientific basis for decision-makers to formulate appropriate water usage and water supply policies. Indices of 283 cities in 15 years were collected, including the urban construction land area, the total population at the end of the year, the total water supply, the area of urban roads at the end of the year, per capita GDP and the total sewage discharge, and all indices were in municipal area scale. The random frontier model based on panel data was used to calculate the water resource utilization efficiency and water environmental pressure of major cities in China. The results show that the water resource utilization efficiency of major prefecture-level cities in China is generally not high, with an average efficiency of 0.464. A totoal of 167 cities are below the average level, accounting for 59.01% of the cities assessed. With an average pressure value of 0.347, cities are under great water environmental pressure, among which 106 cities are higher than the average, accounting for 37.46% of the assessed cities. Taking advantage of regional geography, strengthening regional technical cooperation, and carrying out measures to improve water resource usage efficiency and reduce water environmental pressure, such as adjusting industrial structure and introducing advanced technologies and equipments, are important ways to achieve water resource utilization and sustainable urban development in China.

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