专论与综述

  • 常青.论疏水作用力的特性及影响因素[J].环境科学学报,2020,40(11):3811-3820

  • 论疏水作用力的特性及影响因素
  • Discussion on the characteristics and influence factors of hydrophobic force
  • 基金项目:国家自然科学基金(No.21277065)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 常青
  • 兰州交通大学环境与市政工程学院, 兰州 730070
  • 摘要:疏水絮凝是天然水中经常发生的现象,也是水处理中常被利用的原理.而疏水作用力则是引起疏水絮凝的最主要原因,具有重要的科学意义和应用价值.在过去30多年里,科学家们从实验测定、数值模拟及理论研究3个方面做了大量的研究,使人们对疏水作用力有了一定的认识,但由于问题的复杂性及研究所具有的高难度,目前疏水作用力的理论仍不够完善.为有助于进一步研究,本文综述了疏水作用力的一些特性及影响因素,如疏水作用力的实验规律、疏水作用的距离范围、疏水作用力的粒度界限、表面接触角对疏水作用力的影响、电解质对疏水作用力的影响及温度对疏水作用力的影响等.对大量文献的分析归纳表明,实验规律有单指数函数模型、双指数函数模型及幂函数模型,作用距离范围分为短程作用力及长程作用力,微粒半径大于临界半径时才可产生疏水作用力,疏水作用力随接触角的增大而增大,电解质对疏水作用力基本无影响,关于温度的影响,迄今尚有不同的看法和争论,还需更进一步的研究.
  • Abstract:Hydrophobic flocculation is a common process which occurs in natural water and one of the mechanisms which are employed in water treatment. The hydrophobic force is the most important mechanism which induces the hydrophobic flocculation and is of important scientific significance and great application value. Since more than 30 years ago, many scientists have made the great efforts in the research on hydrophobic force by experimental measurements, numerical simulations and theoretical analyses, which have led a better understanding of hydrophobic force, but the theory about hydrophobic force has still not been satisfactory for today because of its complexity and the difficulties in research method. In order to promote this research further, this article reviews some characteristics and influence factors of hydrophobic forces which were reported in the past literatures, for example, the experimental laws of hydrophobic force, the effect distance-range of hydrophobic force, the particle size-limit for hydrophobic force,the effect of contact angle on hydrophobic force, the effect of electrolyte on hydrophobic force and the effect of temperature on hydrophobic force et al. According to the analysis and the summarization of available literatures, the experimental law is of single exponential, double exponential and power functions respectively, the effect distance-ranges are divided into a short range one and a long range one, hydrophobic interaction takes place only when the radii of hydrophobic particles are greater than the critical radius, hydrophobic force increases with the increase in contact angle, electrolyte has nearly no influence on hydrophobic force, in addition, there have been still a lots of different viewpoints on the temperature dependence of hydrophobic force for today, which need further research very much.

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