本期目录

  • 李文石,沙青娥,袁自冰,王日超,林小华,郑君瑜,邵敏.珠江三角洲轻型汽油车匀速状态挥发性有机物排放特征研究[J].环境科学学报,2019,39(1):243-251

  • 珠江三角洲轻型汽油车匀速状态挥发性有机物排放特征研究
  • Emission characteristics of VOCs from light-duty gasoline vehicles at constant speed in the Pearl River Delta
  • 基金项目:国家重点研发计划(No.2016YFC0202201)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 李文石
  • 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006
  • 沙青娥
  • 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006
  • 袁自冰
  • 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006
  • 王日超
  • 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006
  • 林小华
  • 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006
  • 郑君瑜
  • 1. 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006;2. 暨南大学环境与气候研究院, 广州 511486
  • 邵敏
  • 暨南大学环境与气候研究院, 广州 511486
  • 摘要:以18辆轻型汽油车(LDGVs)为研究对象,利用底盘测功机搭建挥发性有机物(VOCs)采样系统.利用气相色谱-质谱仪(GC-MS)和高效液相色谱(HPLC)识别了匀速25 km·h-1时尾气VOCs化学成分谱和排放因子,并在分析时考虑了排放标准、行驶工况和车辆属性等因素的影响.结果表明,轻型汽油车低速匀速工况下尾气组成以烷烃(40.8%,C5~C7烷烃较多)为主,其次是芳香烃(29.5%)和含氧VOCs(26.0%),烯炔烃(3.6%)和卤代烃(0.1%)较少.其中,甲醛、异戊烷、甲苯、苯、间/对二甲苯、丙酮、2-甲基戊烷、正戊烷、1,2,4-三甲基苯和壬醛是比例最高的物质(52.01%).低速匀速行驶中生成了比例更低的烯烃和比例更高的C5~C7烷烃和OVOCs.排放标准为国Ⅲ、IV和V的轻型汽油车在低速匀速工况下,VOCs排放因子分别为(50.12±46.83)、(40.26±31.15)和(3.25±0.65) mg·km-1.国IV到国V车的烷烃、烯炔烃、芳香烃、卤代烃和总VOCs降幅均超过88%,而 OVOCs 降幅只有约55%,说明OVOCs在国V车的排放富集程度更高.总体来讲,国V车排放的VOCs反应活性约为国IV车排放的VOCs反应活性的11%.车辆属性对VOCs排放的影响表现为:年份、里程和排量的增加会促进VOCs排放的整体增加,而基准质量对VOCs排放的影响相对较小.
  • Abstract:In this study, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) emissions from 18 light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles (LDGV) were measured by VOCs sampling system based on chassis dynamometer. The VOCs source profiles and emission factors of LDGV at a constant speed of 25 km·h-1 were identified by GC-MS(Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer) and HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography), and the effects of emission standard, driving conditions and vehicle attributes were considered in the analysis. At low constant speed, the VOCs compositions of LDGV were mainly alkanes (40.8%, mainly C5~C7 alkanes), followed by aromatics (29.5%) and OVOCs (26.0%), with less alkynes (3.6%) and halohydrocarbon (0.1%). Formaldehyde, isopentane, toluene, benzene, m/p-xylene, acetone, 2-methyl-pentane, n-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and nonaldehydes were the top10 substances (52.01%). Lower alkenes but higher C5~C7 alkanes and OVOCs were generated during low constant speed driving. At low constant speed, the total VOCs emission factors of China Ⅲ, IV and V vehicles were(50.12±46.83), (40.26±31.15) and (3.25±0.65) mg·km-1. Reductions of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, aromatics, halohydrocarbon and total VOCs were all higher than 88% from China IV to China V, while that of OVOCs is only around 55%, which demonstrated higher OVOCs enrichment in China V vehicles. Overall, the total VOCs reactivity from China V vehicle emissions was around 11% of that from China IV vehicle emissions. Meanwhile VOCs emission was also affected by vehicle attributes:the increase of years, mileages and displacement led to increases in VOCs while the reference mass had less impacts.

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