研究报告

  • 李晋鹏,董世魁,彭明春.澜沧江梯级水坝库区大型底栖动物群落结构及水质生物学评价[J].环境科学学报,2018,38(7):2931-2940

  • 澜沧江梯级水坝库区大型底栖动物群落结构及水质生物学评价
  • The structure of benthic macrofauna and bioassessment of water quality in cascade dammed reservoirs of Lancang River
  • 基金项目:国家自然科学基金(No.51509116);国家重点研发计划项目(No.2016YFC0503601)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 李晋鹏
  • 交通运输部水运科学研究所, 北京 100088
  • 董世魁
  • 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100088
  • 彭明春
  • 云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所, 昆明 650091
  • 摘要:梯级水电开发虽然可以最大程度地利用河流的水能资源,但同时也是对河流生态系统的大规模扰动.大型底栖动物被认为是开展梯级水坝水生态系统变化和演替研究的指示生物类群.本文选取澜沧江中下游水电基地为研究区,于2016年开展漫湾和大朝山梯级水坝库区大型底栖动物群落采样调查,分析梯级库区大型底栖动物的群落结构和分布格局,基于生物指数(BI)开展水质生物学评价.结果表明:大型底栖动物物种组成以寡毛纲、软体动物门及昆虫纲的摇蚊类为主,优势种则以软体动物门的河蚬占绝对优势;群落密度和生物量分布格局表现为静水区显著高于过渡区;静水区功能摄食群密度组成以收集者(GC)和滤食者(FC)占优势,生物量组成则以滤食者(FC)占优势;ABC曲线和生物指数分析表明,上游漫湾库区群落稳定性及水质优于下游大朝山库区,反映了梯级水坝沿着河流纵向梯度水环境逐渐变差的趋势,澜沧江梯级水坝库区大型底栖动物群落结构、分布格局和库区水质状况受梯级水坝运行影响表现为明显的累积效应和富营养化效应.
  • Abstract:Although the cascading hydropower exploitation can maximize utilization the water power resources, it can result in a large-scale disturbance on the river ecosystem. Benthic macrofauna are generally considered as an indicator of biological group for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascade dammed reservoirs. In this study, the middle and lower reaches of Lancang River were selected as study areas. The benthic macrofaunas were sampled in cascade dammed reservoirs including Manwan and Dachaoshan in 2016. The structure, distribution pattern of benthic macrofauna, and the bioassessment of water quality based on the biotic index (BI) were analyzed and performed. The results showed that the species composition of benthic macrofauna were mainly Oligochaeta, Mollusca, and chironomids, which belonged to Insecta. The dominant species of benthic macrofauna was Corbicula fluminea, which belonged to Mullusca. The density and biomass of benthic macrofaunas in the lacustrine zone were significantly higher than those in transition zone. As for the functional feeding group, the density composition of benthic macrofaunas was dominated by the gatherer-collector (GC) and filter-collector (FC), while the biomass composition was dominated by the filter-collector (FC). The abundance/biomass curves (ABC) and biotic index (BI) analysis indicated that the stability of benthic macrofauna and the water quality in upstream Manwan reservoir were better than that in downstream Dachaoshan reservoir, implying that the water quality gradually got worse in these cascading reservoirs along the longitudinal gradient of the river. The structure, distribution pattern of benthic macrofauna, and water quality revealed obviously cumulative and eutrophication effects caused by cascading reservoir operation in Lancang River.

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