研究报告

  • 孙海妮,岳善超,王仕稳,牛宗成,殷俐娜,邓西平.有机肥及补充灌溉对旱地农田温室气体排放的影响[J].环境科学学报,2018,38(5):2055-2065

  • 有机肥及补充灌溉对旱地农田温室气体排放的影响
  • Effects of manure and supplementary irrigation on greenhouse gas emission in dryland fields
  • 基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(No.2015CB150402);国家科技支撑计划(No.2015BAD22B01)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 孙海妮
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 杨凌 712100;2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100
  • 岳善超
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100;2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
  • 王仕稳
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 杨凌 712100;2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100;3. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
  • 牛宗成
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 杨凌 712100;2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100
  • 殷俐娜
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 杨凌 712100;2. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100;3. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
  • 邓西平
  • 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100;2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
  • 摘要:在农业生产中,提高作物产量减少农田温室气体排放具有重要意义.本文采用静态箱-气相色谱法,在黄土高原半干旱半湿润区,以单施氮肥180 kg·hm-2(以N计)为对照,研究了氮肥180 kg·hm-2+有机肥45×103 kg·hm-2(NM)、氮肥180 kg·hm-2+有机肥45×103 kg·hm-2+拔节期灌水(NMW)处理在冬小麦生育期温室气体的变化规律及其综合增温潜势(Global warming potential,GWP),并计算温室气体排放强度(Greenhouse gas intensity,GHGI),以明确有机肥及补充灌溉的增产潜力及对温室气体的减排效果.结果表明:①整个生育期CO2排放速率随作物生长发育的加速而逐渐加快,接近成熟期其排放速率降低;N2O排放峰均出现在施肥、降雨及灌水后.NM、NMW处理的CO2累积排放量(以C计,下同)分别为14933.35 kg·hm-2、15929.74 kg·hm-2,比对照分别增加了22.8%、31.0%;N2O累积排放量(以N计,下同)分别为0.48 kg·hm-2、0.52 kg·hm-2,比对照分别降低了23.8%、17.5%;CH4累积吸收量分别为1.73 kg·hm-2、1.87 kg·hm-2,比对照分别降低了18.4%、11.8%.②CH4吸收速率与土壤温度呈显著性正相关,而与土壤含水量呈显著性负相关;CO2排放速率与土壤温度及含水量均呈显著性正相关;N2O排放速率与土壤温度、含水量及硝态氮含量均呈显著性正相关,与铵态氮含量呈负相关.③NM、NMW处理的GWP比对照分别降低了27.8%、21.2%;NM、NMW均显著增加了小麦产量,增产率分别为24.6%、36.7%.NM、NMW的GHGI比对照分别降低了41.9%、42.4%.说明在施用有机肥及有机肥加补充灌水在增加作物产量的同时,达到了温室气体减排的作用.
  • Abstract:Manure and supplementary irrigation application are proposed to increase the crop yield in semi-arid and semi-humid region of Loess Plateau, but the effects of manure and supplementary irrigation application on the greenhouse gas emission are not clear. In this study, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions were monitored by static-chamber gas chromatography technique,and global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were then calculated. The experiment included three treatments (N:urea nitrogen fertilizer 180 kg·hm-2, NM:urea nitrogen fertilizer 180 kg·hm-2 + manure 45×103 kg·hm-2, NMW:urea nitrogen fertilizer 180 kg·hm-2 + manure 45×103 kg·hm-2 + supplementary irrigation in wheat jointing stage). The results showed that:① The fluxes of CO2 emission increased with the growth process and decreased at the beginning of maturity. Compared with the N treatment, the cumulative CO2 emissions of NM and NMW treatments were increased by 22.8% and 31.0%, arrived at 14933.35 kg·hm-2 and 15929.74 kg·hm-2, respectively. The fluxes of N2O emission were suddenly increased after fertilization, rainfall and irrigation during winter wheat growing season. Compared with the N treatment, the cumulative N2O emissions of NM and NMW were decreased by 23.8% and 17.5%, arrived at 0.48 kg·hm-2 and 0.52 kg·hm-2, respectively. The cumulative CH4 absorption were 1.73 kg·hm-2 in NM treatment and 1.87 kg·hm-2 in NMW treatment, and decreased by 18.4% and 11.8% compared with N treatment, respectively. ② The CH4 absorption rate was positive correlation with soil temperature and negative correlation with soil moisture content. The CO2 and N2O emission rate were positive correlation with soil temperature and soil moisture content. N2O emission rate was positive correlation with NO3--N, and negative correlation with NH4+-N. ③ Both the GWP and GHGI in NM and NMW treatments were significant lower than that of N treatment. However, the crop yields of NM and MMW treatments were significantly increased by 24.6%, 36.7% than that of N treatment, respectively. Therefore, the result of this study showed that the application of manure and supplementary irrigation increased crop yields and mitigated greenhouse gas simultaneously.

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