研究报告

  • 荣楠,单保庆,林超,郭勇,赵钰,朱晓磊.海河流域河流氮污染特征及其演变趋势[J].环境科学学报,2016,36(2):420-427

  • 海河流域河流氮污染特征及其演变趋势
  • Evolution of the nitrogen pollution in the Hai River Basin
  • 基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(No.2012ZX07203-006)
  • 作者
  • 单位
  • 荣楠
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心环境水质学国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 单保庆
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心环境水质学国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 林超
  • 水利部海河水利委员会水资源保护局, 天津 300170
  • 郭勇
  • 水利部海河水利委员会水资源保护局, 天津 300170
  • 赵钰
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心环境水质学国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 朱晓磊
  • 中国科学院生态环境研究中心环境水质学国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 摘要:收集海河流域重点水功能区主要监测站点2000-2011年总氮(TN)、氨氮(NH4+-N)、硝氮(NO3--N)、亚硝氮(NO2--N)指标的历史数据,并且实测2009年350个样点的氮素指标,以探明海河流域河流氮污染特征及其演变趋势.结果表明,海河流域氮污染现状严重,2011年TN、NH4+-N、NO3--N和NO2--N的平均浓度分别为7.92、4.25、1.28、0.013 mg·L-1,TN、NH4+-N超地表水V类水质标准现象严重(>2.0 mg·L-1),其中海河干流水系、北三河(北运河、潮白河、蓟运河)水系和子牙河水系污染较重.在空间尺度上,海河流域氮污染沿山区-平原方向呈现出明显逐渐上升的变化特征.在时间尺度上,TN与NH4+-N浓度变化均在2005年与2011年出现峰值,TN浓度与NH4+-N、NO3--N、NO2--N浓度呈现极显著正相关(p<0.01),NH4+-N是海河流域氮污染的主要污染因子.2000-2011年,NH4+-N劣V类(>2.0 mg·L-1)站点比例整体上表现为减少趋势,由2000年的28.87%降为2011年的17.56%,劣V类站点NH4+-N浓度均值由2000年的7.91 mg·L-1降为2011年的6.50 mg·L-1.在海河流域中,黑龙港运东水系、子牙河水系河流NH4+-N污染较重,各年平均浓度均超过地表水V类水质标准,NH4+-N平均浓度呈现随年份逐渐降低的趋势.在海河流域氮污染整体表现为好转的趋势下,氮污染的现状仍然严峻,需加强控制.
  • Abstract:Concentrations of total nitrogen(TN), ammonia (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3--N) and nitrite (NO2--N) at monitoring sites in the main water functional areas (from 2000 to 2011) in the Hai River Basin, as well as field investigated data at 350 sampling sites in 2009, were collected to analyze status and evolution of nitrogen pollution in this basin. The results show that the Hai River Basin was severely polluted by nitrogen, and the concentrations of TN、NH4+-N、NO3--N、NO2--N was 7.92 mg·L-1, 4.25 mg·L-1, 1.28 mg·L-1, and 0.013 mg·L-1 averagely in 2011, respectively. The most polluted areas include the Haihe Main River, Beisan River (North Canal, Chaobai River, and Jiyun River) and Ziya River systems. In the spatial distribution, the nitrogen pollutants were relatively low in the mountain areas while high in the middle plain regions. In the temporal distribution, concentrations of both TN and NH4+-N show two peak values in 2005 and 2011. There is significant positive correlation (p<0.01) between TN and the other nitrogen pollutants. NH4+-N was the dominant factor of the nitrogen pollution in the Hai River Basin. The areas with NH4+-N concentration higher than class V decreased from 28.87% in 2000 to 23.85% in 2011, and the average concentration of NH4+-N at these sites gradually declined from 7.91 mg·L-1 in 2000 to 6.50 mg·L-1 in 2011. However, NH4+-N contents were still high in the Heilongang River and Ziya River systems. This study reveals that the nitrogen pollution was mitigated in the watershed, but there is still a long way to get rid of nitrogen pollution in the Hai River Basin.

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