- Research advances in radioactive wastewater treatment using membrane processes
- 1. 清华大学核能与新能源技术研究院环境技术研究室, 北京 100084;
2. 先进反应堆工程与安全教育部重点实验室, 清华大学, 北京 100084
- 清华大学核能与新能源技术研究院环境技术研究室, 北京 100084
- Abstract：Large amounts of radioactive wastewater are produced during production of nuclear fuel, operation of nuclear power plant, production and application of isotopes and so on. The radioactive wastewater must be treated and disposed safely, economically and efficiently to protect environment and human health. The most commonly used methods for radioactive wastewater treatment include traditional filtration, chemical precipitation, ion exchange and thermal evaporation or combined. In recent years, extensive studies on application of membrane technologies for radioactive wastewater treatment have been carried out because of their advantages such as higher efficiency, lower operational cost and less secondary wastes comparing with traditional methods. There are many industrial application examples of membrane technologies used for practical radioactive wastewater treatment in developed countries, but few in China. In this paper, we firstly introduced the sources and compositions of radioactive wastewater and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of different traditional treatment methods, including chemical precipitation, traditional filtration, ion exchange, thermal evaporation, adsorption, and biological reduction/biosorption. Afterwards, various types of membrane technologies, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation were introduced, and their principles, current status of research and application in the field of radioactive wastewater treatment were systematically analyzed, categorized and summarized based on the large amount of published literatures. The pros and cons and applicability of each membrane technology were compared, and the application potential and possible problems of their future application were discussed. Finally, the final treatment and disposal of concentrated wastes from radioactive wastewater treatment was introduced, and the future direction of research and development of radioactive wastewater treatment was proposed.
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